- Ocean-ocean (
- Ocean continent (continental arcs or active margins)
The first case is simpler: no role of the preexisting continental crust, thinner lithosphere. A good starting point to discuss subduction-related magmas
I. Island arc lavas
Very diverse lava.
- The dominant type is calc-alkaline or tholeitic, basalt-basaltic andesite-andesite-dacite-rhyolite, with cpx/hbl/plag as common minerals
- A subordinate type is alkaline and saturated, basalt-trachyte±dacite
A Si-K diagrams allows to differenciate three or four main series (or
groups of series): low, medium and high K, and shoshonites (very high K);
- K2O increases with differenciation, but the different series are clearly distinct and have different “roots”
- AFM separates tholeitic from calc-alkaline largely on the basis of the Fe/Mg ratio
- Diagrams of Fe/Mg vs. SiO2 can therefore serve the same purpose
- Again, Fe/Mg increases with differenciation but at the “root” two main, distinct series.
3. Three main series
- Both observations can be conmbined by looking at the K2O and FeO/MgO values at a reference SiO2 level (57.5%).
- 6 possible case (low, med, hi K; thol or CA) but only three are common:
o Low-K tholeites (“
o Medium K calc-alkaline
o High K (alkaline)
- Generally there is a rough zoning, from low-K tholeites close to the arc, to medium K in the main arc, to high K in the “secondary” arc.
Compared to the “normal”, mantle-derived basalts (OIB):- the fluid-mobile LIL are enriched, suggesting that fluids played an important role;
- the (incompatible, but not fluid-mobile) HFS are not enriched, suggesting a source which was HFS poor (not the enriched mantle nor the crust).
- Nb-Ta “anomaly” is regarded as a diagnostic feature of arc magmas; it is probably due to stable rutile in the residuum;
- No MREE/HREE fractionation suggests no garnet in the residuum.
Mostly MORB-like (upper mantle) with some contribution from oceanic sediments
2. Beryllium isotopes
- 10Be produced by cosmic rays, short life (T = 1 Ma; disappears after 10 Ma). It is therefore present in oceanic sediments but not in the mantle.
- B (Boron) is a stable element, abundant in the sediments and even more in the altered oceanic crust.
- In a 10Be vs. B diagram (or variants thereof), clear distinction between the mantle (low in both), the altered oceanic crust (high in B, low in 10Be) and the oceanic sediments (high in 10Be, moderate in B).
- Arc lavas plot along lines between the mantle and the “crustal” array, emphasizing the role of the oceanic crust (both components potentially).
II. Petrogenesis of arc lavas
Most likely oceanic plate + mantle.
- Thermal modeling suggest that the slab can melt in some cases
o The decoupling HFS/LIL
o The absence of grt in the residuum
Suggest that it is uncommon
- More commonly however, the slab rocks will dehydrate before melting; therefore no or minor slab melting (adakites).
- Fluids released from the slab react with the peridotite, form H2O rich phases (amphibole and phlogopite mostly).
- The peridotite is dragged down by the slab, and
o Amphibole breaks down at ± 100 km depth
o Phlogopite breaks down at ± 200 km
- Therefore, two successive arcs, one linked to amp breakdown and one to phl breakdown; phl being K-rich, the second arc is more potassic.
Thick crust can cause
- contamination of the magmas
- melting of the crust
- trapping/stagnation of magmas as they rise
different from island arc (no tholeites but the other two are present).
Typically felsic rocks more common
2. Plutonic rocks
- I-type granites and associated rocks (tonalites etc.)
- Felsic rocks abundant
Particulary evident in the
- Evidenced by hornblendite cumulates
- Possible, as the greater thickness of the crust allows longer residence times etc.
- isotopes not consistent with a purely juvenile (mantle) origin
- would require large amounts of cumulates
- would probably generate more mafic rocks than felsic
Melting of already not-so-mafic lithologies
- Preexisting granitic crust: possible but isotopes require that it’s a young crust, so granitoids just emplaced. This is just pushing the problem a step back.
- Mafic rocks:
o Trace elements (HREE depletion) suggest that this must be garnet-present melting
o Garnet can be present in metasediments (but they would generate S-types) and in metabasalts, at P > 10 kbar
o Two possibilities: slab melting (again, unlikely in the general case, and in particular in the Peruvian Andes where the slab is old and cold); melting of underplated basalts
- Two stage process:
o formation of mafic magmas (normal calc-alkaline), trapped at the base of a thick crust during compression periods;
o remelting of these magmas to give tonalitic to granodioritic magmas
o minor differenciation (if at all)
A. Main features
B. Diversity of island-arc series
C. Trace elements
A. Can the slab melt?
B. Melting of the hydrous mantle
A. Rock types
B. Crustal contamination
C. Origin of the felsic rocks